Iraq — Afghanistan Contractor Census, FY 1st quarter (Nov – Jan 2015)
BACKGROUND: This report updates DoD contractor personnel numbers in theater and outlines DoD efforts to improve management of contractors accompanying U.S. forces. It covers DoD contractor personnel deployed in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)) and the U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) area of responsibility (AOR).
KEY POINTS: In 1st quarter FY 2015, USCENTCOM reported approximately 54,700 contractor personnel working for the DoD in the USCENTCOM AOR. This total reflects a decrease of approximately 6.2K from the previous quarter. A breakdown of DoD contractor personnel is provided below:
The distribution of contractors in Afghanistan by mission category are:
Base Support: 3,564 ( 9%)
Commo Support: 1,255 ( 3%)
Construction: 4,595 (12%)
Logistics/Maintenance: 16,596 (42%)
Security: 1,511 ( 4%)
Training: 1,069 ( 3%)
Translator/Interpreter: 2,218 ( 5%)
Transportation: 3,763 (10%)
Medical/Dental/Social Services: 238 ( 0%)
Management/Administrative: 3,566 ( 9%)
Other* 1,234 ( 3%)
*Includes Defense Logistics Agency, Army Materiel Command, Air Force External and Systems Support contracts, Special Operations Command and INSCOM.
OEF Contractor Posture Highlights:
o In 1st quarter FY15 there were approximately 39.6K DoD contractors in Afghanistan. The overall contractor footprint in Afghanistan decreased by 12.7% from 4th quarter FY14.
o The reduction of the US and TCN contractor population in Afghanistan continues to meet targeted goals.
o US Forces-Afghanistan (USFOR-A) continues to conduct portfolio reviews which serve to synchronize and reduce requirements.
• Operation Inherent Resolve Contractor Posture.
o As of 1st quarter 2015, there are approximately 5,000 contractors supporting US government operations in Iraq. About 250 of those contractors are supporting DoD funded contracts primarily performing translator/interpreter, communications, logistics, and maintenance functions.
General Data on DoD Private Security Contractor Personnel in Afghanistan
• Private security contractors (PSC) perform personal security, convoy security, and static security missions.
• USCENTCOM reports, as of 1st quarter FY 2015, the following distribution of PSCs in Afghanistan:
In Afghanistan, the mobile security functions of the APPF are being transferred to the Ministry of Interior under a convoy protection brigade. Under an agreement between USF-A/ISAF and the Government of Afghanistan, the Defense Department will continue to use contractors for static security. Contracting and payment protocols are still under development.
Improvements to Management and Oversight of DoD Contractors
• Operational Contract Support Integration Cell (OCSIC). The USFOR-A OCSIC (formerly the OCS Drawdown Cell) was established in August 2012 with a mission to manage the programmatic drawdown of contracts, the contractor workforce and associated equipment in the Combined Joint Operations Area-Afghanistan (CJOA-A). Through the efforts of its Program Management Integration and Regional Teams, the OCSIC influenced requirements reduction in the CJOA-A resulting in a decrease of boots on ground contractors. Lessons learned from implementation of the OCSIC informed recent revision of doctrine (JP 4-10) on the OCS Integration Cell.
• CENTCOM Joint Theater Support Contracting Command (C-JTSCC). C-JTSCC has centralized oversight and authority to ensure all contracts executed in Afghanistan are visible and in compliance with contracting policy and procedures. In coordination with the OCSIC, CJTSCC is evaluating local vendor capability to perform critically needed services previously provided by LOGCAP, but on a much smaller scale. This will ensure support to the warfighter continues while simultaneously reducing the number of US and other country national contractors. Additionally, to facilitate drawdown, the OCSIC recently was fully subsumed by the C-JTSCC under one commander whose staff serves as both OCSIC and JTSCC. This will facilitate eventual transition from a JTSCC to a lead service for contracting (LSC) construct.
• JP 4-10 (Operational Contract Support). The Joint Staff J4 has updated JP 4-10 Operational Contract Support, which serves as the doctrine for planning, conducting, and assessing OCS integration and contractor management functions in support of joint operations. This update to OCS doctrine was published on 16 July 2014.
• Defense Standards for Security Services.
o Pursuant to Section 833 of the FY2011 NDAA, compliance with American National Standard ANSI PSC.1-2012, “Quality Management Standard for Private Security Company Operations” is required in all DoD contracts for private security services. The requirements and guidance of this standard implement all PSC relevant provisions of US law, Defense Directives and instructions, and promoted consistency with international agreements. Demonstrated compliance with this standard will facilitate identifying technically acceptable contractors and best value. This will enable expedited contract award; mitigate risk of delay of services due to contract award protests; and mitigate risk of contractor non-performance or misconduct in critical early phases of contingency operations. The United Kingdom also requires compliance with this ANSI PSC standard and the State Department expects to require compliance in the next issuance of their World-wide Protective Services contract.
o In December, 2014, an international (ISO) version of this standard was released as a Draft International Standard for review and ballot by all ISO national standards bodies. When this standard is approved by ISO, it will enable international acceptance of the standards in use by the United States and the United Kingdom, increasing consistency and legal compliance in the provision of all PSC services everywhere. This will improve competition and manage risk associated with operational environments which will include PSCs not under the direct control of US or coalition forces. The standard is on track for completion in June 2015.
Operational Contract Support (OCS) Functional Capabilities Integration Board (FCIB). This senior executive–level governance forum was chartered by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics in March 2010 to provide strategic leadership to multiple stakeholders working to institutionalize OCS. Co-chaired by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Program Support) and Joint Staff, Vice Director J-4, the FCIB convenes quarterly (or as required). On November 25, 2014, the FCIB convened the 1st Quarter FY15 Principals meeting. Key topics reviewed by the Board included:
o DoD Response to the Defense Science Board Report on Contractor Logistics
o OCS Knowledge Integration & Solutions Working Group Recommendations
o OCS Support to Current Operations Update
o OCS Joint Proponent Working Group Update
o OCS Joint Exercise 2015
o Contingency Program Management Informational Briefing
The 2nd Quarter FY15 Principals meeting will be held on February 24, 2015
• Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO). Planning, implementation, and oversight of OCS are Commander's responsibilities and are essential to establishing a strategy for managing contractors on the battlefield as part of the DoD Total Force. JCASO provides the Combatant Commands a joint enabling capability to integrate, coordinate and synchronize OCS during peacetime, contingency operations, and post-conflict operations. JCASO is an essential part of DLA's combat support agency (CSA) role to support the mission objectives of the combatant commands, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Title 10 responsibilities, as well as the Office of the Secretary of Defense for OCS policy development and implementation.
Examples of current JCASO engagements include:
o Deploying teams for 6-month rotations to support the OCS Integration Cell (OCSIC) and provide expertise in the drawdown efforts;
o Leading and managing the economic development initiative (i.e., local procurements) in the Central Asian States in support of the Northern Distribution Network (NDN) strategy in the USCENTCOM AOR, and in Africa in support of USAFRICOM;
o Establishing the Afghanistan Contract Transition Workgroup (ACTW) to facilitate the interagency coordination for planning and transitioning OCS from DoD to DOS; and
o Participating in joint exercises (e.g., OCS Joint Exercise and AUSTERE CHALLENGE) to integrate OCS in training and assess the effectiveness of OCS plans;
o Assessing the JCASO mission and organization to validate support effectiveness and alignment with the DOD OCS Action Plan 2014-2017;
o Supporting ARCENT in establishing and developing an OCS cell, related policy, processes and products;
o Providing OCS support as requested or directed to CCMDs, Service components, and others, including HA/DR such as Operation UNITED ASSISTANCE;
o Developing the way ahead for collecting and advancing OCS joint lessons learned;
o Assessing OCS integration with non-DoD partners to identify gaps and propose concepts or solutions for improvement to better align with JF 2020;
o Working with OCS peers to draft procedures and policy for the joint planning to identify how OCS transitions from contingency operations to steady state and redeployment;
o Delivering the OCS module in the Joint Logistics Course at the Army Logistics University;
o Participating in GAO interviews to share information on JCASO’s enabling capability relative to OCS lessons learned, and OCS planning and execution in USAFRICOM;
o Developing a manpower strategy to fulfill a demand for OCS skills at the combatant commands and Service components.
• JCASO Contingency Contracting and Local Procurement: JCASO provides a joint contingency contracting capability by extending and leveraging DLA’s extensive contracting capabilities while simultaneously complementing the Services’ capacities. It furthers best practices through a programmatic approach, and is expected to focus on humanitarian assistance and disaster relief contract support. JCASO also leads and manages the economic development initiatives (i.e., local procurement) to build partnership capacity with the whole-of-government and industries. JCASO responds to demand signals from Combatant Commands and deployed forces, such as providing contingency contracting support in Operation UNITED ASSISTANCE, the USCENTCOM Central Asia States (CAS) local sourcing procurement initiative, and the DLA-E/A and AFRICOM initiative to help leverage existing DLA contracts and develop new contract solutions that address AFRICOM’s evolving mission.
• JCASO Planners. Seventeen (17) JCASO planners are allocated among the Geographic Combatant Commands to assist commanders in identifying gaps where a contracted support capability may be required. Planners integrate contracted support into operational plans and synchronize requirements with subordinate commands, the Military Departments, Defense Agencies, other USG Agencies, and coalition partners. The planners have been instrumental in integrating OCS into Combatant Command plans. Based on demonstrated need for additional OCS planning capability in USPACOM, JCASO also established OCS planners at forward locations in USFK and USFJ.
• SPOT Configuration Control Board (CCB). ODASD(PS), as the functional sponsor for SPOT, co-chairs a quarterly CCB. This Board evaluates proposed enhancements to SPOT and prioritizes implementation to ensure consistency within funding parameters. Membership includes participants from across the DoD OCS community, DOS, and U.S. Agency for International Development.
• Operational Contract Support (OCS) Learning Framework. The Department continues to make progress on the Secretary’s and the Chairman's vision for OCS education and training. Several parallel efforts are underway to incorporate OCS into a holistic learning framework that includes education, individual and collective training, exercises, and lessons learned primarily aimed at non-acquisition personnel.
o OCS in Joint Professional Military Education (JPME). The Joint Staff (J7) has revised CJCSI 1800.01E, “Officer Professional Military Education Policy (OPMEP)”. It now includes learning areas incorporating OCS into 3 of the 5 levels of PME/JPME (IAW 10 USC § 2151): Intermediate / JPME-I; Senior / JPME-II; and CAPSTONE. It is expected to be promulgated in January 2015. Further, as part of the process for accreditation of joint education (PAJE) visits, the Joint Staff J7’s Joint Education Division queries JPME institutions on their inclusion of OCS in curricula. Joint Staff (J4) OCS and Services Division (OCSSD) has begun work on Version 3.0 of the OCS Curriculum Development Guide (CDG) to fully integrate the OPMEP changes and offer JPME institutions guidance and options for teaching OCS. The Joint Staff (J4) continues to brief faculty of JPME schools on developments in OCS as part of the Joint Faculty Education Conference held annually. The Joint Staff (J4) has worked with the Joint Combined Warfare School of the Joint Forces Staff College for specific inclusion of OCS topics in their curriculum as they concentrate on joint planning with a throughput of 1200 students per year. Beginning in 2015, JCWS will dedicate 1 hour to OCS during the 2 week introductory phase of the course and then continue to “pull the OCS thread” throughout the rest of the 8 weeks of Campaign Planning, Contingency Planning and Crisis Action Planning.
o Lessons Learned. The Department is working to address the findings from the forthcoming Government Accountability Office’s report on lessons learned. The Joint Staff (J4), OCSSD is also working with the JCASO to document and implement an OCS Lessons Learned Concept of Operations (CONOPS) and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for collecting, analyzing, and processing OCS lessons at the tactical, operational, and strategic level. The CONOPS and SOP will use and leverage DOD’s official system of record for lessons learned, the Joint Lessons Learned Information System.
o Exercises. The second OCS Joint Exercise (OCSJX-15) is a two-phased and will take place at Ft. Bliss, Texas and Schofield Barracks, Hawaii between 10 March and 12 April. The exercise anticipates training over 700 participants on the OCS tasks for Contract Support Integration, Contracting Support, and Contractor Management. The OCSJX-15 scenario is based on the TALISMAN SABRE scenario in the USPACOM area of responsibility. The training audience will include OCS staff members from USPACOM, USPACAF, US Army Expeditionary Contracting Command's 412th Contract Support Brigade, US Air Force and Navy contracting personnel. Other key DOD stakeholders that will participate are; USACE, DLA JCASO, DASD-PS, DPAP and. Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom will also participate. Planning for OCSJX-16 in USAFRICOM will begin in February 2015.
o Collective and Staff Training. The Chairman’s Joint Training Guidance Notice (CJCSN 3500.01) provides annual guidance to all DOD Components for planning, executing, and assessing joint training for three consecutive years. It includes High Interest Training Issues (HITIs) which are CJCS special-interest items that CCDRs should consider for emphasis in their training and exercise programs. OCS considerations are reflected in the “Ethics, Values, and Leadership” HITI, the “Joint Logistics Enterprise” HITI, and the main document as part of efforts to realize Joint Force 2020. The Joint Staff (J4) is in the final staffing of revised Universal Joint Tasks (UJTs) for OCS, which incorporate lessons learned from OCSJX-14 and new doctrine on OCS from Joint Publication 4-10 (16 July 2014). The updated UJTs will be published in a revised Joint Metrics and Readiness (JMR) Guide in 2015. The Guide assists planners in integrating OCS into joint training and exercises to help ensure realistic readiness assessments for OCS.
o Individual Training. ODASD (PS) and OCSSD are working together to update the three joint OCS computer-based courses initiated in 2009. The three courses were “joint training certified” in 2013 and are hosted on JKO, the joint community’s web portal for providing key joint training. As of 30 September 2014, 1623 personnel have completed these joint certified OCS courses. In addition to the JKO courses and Contracting Officer’s Representative training, the Joint Staff (J4) OCSSD is teaching a Joint OCS Planning and Execution Course (JOPEC) at the geographic combatant commands (GCCs) via mobile training teams (MTTs). JOPEC has since been taught at every GCC in FY 2014, a cycle that will continue in FY 2015. 294 students have been trained to-date. An additional 150 students are expected to complete JOPEC in FY 2015. JOPEC received its joint certification on 15 December 2014.The JS J4 is seeking to permanently establish JOPEC at a JPME institution or a joint training center.
o ODASD(PS), the Joint Staff J4, and Headquarters DA are working to develop a OCS multiService course from an existing Army course at the Army Logistics University. The course roll out projection date is fourth quarter FY15.
• OCS Planning. Using the guidance found in the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual (CJCSM) 3130.03 Adaptive Planning and Execution (APEX) Planning Formats and Guidance, the Combatant Commands continue to document and expand their OCS planning efforts and products. The Joint Staff (J4) is developing a separate manual, CJCSM 4301.01A, Planning OCS, to assist OCS planners in developing procedures and guidance that integrate, synchronize, prioritize, and focus OCS capabilities on achieving a supported commander’s operational objectives and desired effects for the various types of plans. The Joint Staff J4 is actively involved in the review of Combatant Command Contingency and Operational Plans, as a member of the Joint Planning Execution Community (JPEC).
• OCS Joint Concept. JROC Memorandum 159-13, approved the OCS Joint Concept, and JROCM 060-14 approved implementation thereof as part of the OCS Action Plan. This concept envisions that contracted support for military operations will be an interdependent capability of Joint Force 2020 (JF 2020). This concept addresses how JF 2020 can operationalize OCS to optimize contracted support capabilities of the total force partners to achieve operational effects across the range of military operations within acceptable and manageable risk levels. It builds upon ongoing efforts to institutionalize OCS in the present force and proposes a full spectrum doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, and personnel capability solution framework to deliver more responsive and accountable OCS. The OCS Joint Concept implementation tasks were incorporated into the OCS Action Plan by the FCIB in February 2014.
The OCS Mission Integrator (OMI) is the key solution element of the OCS JC. The OMI will provide combatant commanders, joint task forces and components unprecedented capability to integrate OCS across joint functions and into contracting efforts to optimize Total Force capabilities. The JS J4 has partnered with U.S Pacific Command (USPACOM) to conduct a three-year demonstration to assess the OMI’s performance under operational conditions. The demonstration started in June 2014 and is progressing through the initial training and integration phase. The initial phase of the demonstration will culminate with successful completion of OCJX 15 in April and Talisman Sabre 15 in July 2015.