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3rd quarter FY 2012, Iraq/ Afghan Contractor Census

Post Date: July 1, 2012 | Category: The Danger Zone



BACKGROUND:  This update reports DoD contractor personnel numbers in theater and outlines DoD efforts to improve management of contractors accompanying U.S. forces.  It covers DoD contractor personnel deployed in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Iraq, and the U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) area of responsibility (AOR).

KEY POINTS: In 3rd quarter FY 2012, USCENTCOM reported approximately 137,000 contractor personnel working for the DoD in the USCENTCOM AOR.  This was approximately a 10.5% decrease from the previous quarter.  The number of contractors outside of Afghanistan and Iraq make up about 11.5% of the total contractor population in the USCENTCOM AOR.  A breakdown of DoD contractor personnel is provided below:

DoD Contractor Personnel in the USCENTCOM AOR

Total Contractors

U.S. Citizens

Third Country Nationals

Local/Host Country Nationals

Afghanistan Only





Iraq Only*





Other USCENTCOM Locations










*Includes DoD contractors supporting U.S. Mission Iraq and/or Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq 

Afghanistan Summary 

  • The distribution of contractors in Afghanistan by contracting activity are:

Theater Support - Afghanistan: 20,291  (18%)

LOGCAP: 36,901  (32%)

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: 7,743  (7%)

Other:* 48,801  (43%)

Total: 113,736

*Includes Defense Logistics Agency, Army Materiel Command, Air Force External and Systems Support contracts, Special Operations Command and INSCOM.

  • OEF Contractor Posture Highlights:
  • There are currently approximately 113.7K DoD contractors in Afghanistan.  The overall contractor footprint has decreased 3% from the 2nd quarter FY12.
  • The contractor to military ratio in Afghanistan is 1.19 to 1 (based on 95.4K military).
  • Local Nationals make up 42% of the DoD contracted workforce in Afghanistan. 

Iraq Summary

  • Contractor Posture Highlights:
  • There was a 33% decrease in the number of DoD contractors as compared to the 2nd quarter 2012 due to the continued transition of DoD contracts to the Department of State.
  • The Department of Defense and Department of State continue to refine the requirements for contract support.  We project that by the end of FY 2012, the USG contractor population in Iraq will be approximately 13.5K.  Roughly half of these contractors are employed under Department of State contracts.  Although the remainder are employed under DoD contracts, only approximately 4,000 will be directly supporting DoD mission areas.  The remaining contractor personnel employed under DoD contracts are supporting State Department and other civilian activities under the Chief of Mission, Iraq.  These DoD contractors are provided on a reimbursable basis.


General Data on DoD Private Security Contractor Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan 

  • Private security contractors perform personal security, convoy security, and static security missions.  Not all private security contractor personnel are armed.
  • In Afghanistan, The Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF) Advisory Group is developing the planning for contracts to transition to the APPF in accordance with Presidential Decree 62.  The original intent was for all convoy and development contracts to transition by 20 March 2012, however, this timeline has been extended to enable the APPF to come to full operational capability. The APPF Advisory Group has established a transition plan to facilitate the transition of security for development sites and convoys.  International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) fixed site and military construction PSC contracts have until 20 March 2013 to be transitioned to the APPF.
  • USCENTCOM reports, as of 3rd quarter FY 2012, the following distribution of private security contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq:

DoD Private Security Contractor Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan


U.S. Citizens

Third Country National

Local/Host Country National

DoD PSCs in Afghanistan





DoD PSCs in Iraq





*These numbers include most subcontractors and service contractors hired by prime contractors under DoD contracts.  They include both armed and unarmed contractors.  They do not include PSCs working under DoS and USAID contracts.  

General Conditions Regarding Contracts and Contractor Personnel 

  • The Combatant Commander has provided specific guidance on arming contractor personnel and private security contractors in the USCENTCOM AOR through a series of Fragmentary Orders (FRAGOs) and other authoritative guidance, including the following:
  • Private security contractor personnel are not authorized to participate in offensive operations and must comply with specific USCENTCOM Rules for the Use of Force (RUF).  Under these RUF, private security contractor personnel are authorized to use deadly force only when necessary in:  self-defense, defense of facilities / persons as specified in their contract; prevention of life-threatening acts directed against civilians; or defense of Coalition-approved property specified within their contract.
  • Private security contractor personnel in Afghanistan and Iraq must be properly licensed to carry arms in accordance with host nation law and must receive USCENTCOM / Coalition Forces’ approval of their operations.  DoD contractor personnel armed by DoD authority must report any use of force, including the firing of a weapon.  This requirement and the required information to be submitted are identified within the terms of the contract,  USFOR-A OPLAN 09-01, and Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq (OSC-I) policy.

Improvements to Management and Oversight of DoD Contractors 

  • Publication of DoD Instruction (DoDI) 3020.41.  A revised version of DoDI 3020.41, “Operational Contract Support,” formerly entitled “Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany the U.S. Armed Forces,” was signed on December 20th, 2011. It was also published as 32 CFR Part 158.  This version contains significant changes to the previous instruction including:  (1) incorporation of lessons learned from current operations; (2) requirements for the development of contractor oversight plans; (3) requirements for adequate military personnel necessary to execute contract oversight; and, (4) standards of medical care for deployed contractors.  Further, it reiterates the importance of the use of a common database for the accountability and visibility of contractors supporting DoD contingency operations.
  • Defense Standards for Security Services. 
    • Business and operational standards for private security contractors (which were required by Section 833 of the FY2011 NDAA) are now complete and were validated by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in early March 2012.  The associated conformity assessment to enable third party certification was published in April 2012.
    • On May 22, 2012, DoD issued instructions (PGI) to the DFARS requiring compliance with the ANSI PSC standard for combat operations and other contingency operations
    • Standards and provision for third party certification in Section 833 of the FY 2011 NDAA will facilitate identifying technically acceptable contractors and best value which: enables expedited contract award; mitigates risk of delay of services due to contract award protests; and, mitigates risk of contractor non-performance or misconduct in critical early phases of contingency operations.
  • Joint Theater Support Contracting Command (JTSCC).  JTSCC has centralized oversight and authority to ensure all contracts executed in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Kuwait are visible and in compliance with contracting policy and procedures. JTSCC headquarters is located in Qatar and facilitates broader theater contracting oversight functions.  There are two Flag/GO officers assigned to JTSCC; the Commander and the Senior Contracting Officer (SCO) in Afghanistan.
  • JP 4-10 (Operational Contract Support).  The Joint Staff J4 has established a working group to embark on the revision of JP 4-10 (Operational Contract Support) which serves as the doctrine for planning, conducting, and assessing operational contract support integration and contractor management functions in support of joint operations.  Writing teams are currently staffing draft revisions to this doctrine which was originally published in October, 2008.
  • DoD Directive (DoDD) 3020.49 on Orchestrating, Synchronizing, and Integrating Program Management of Contingency Acquisition Planning and its Operational Executionwas signed on March 24, 2009.  It establishes policy and assigns responsibilities for program management for the preparation and execution of acquisitions for contingency operations, and for the accountability, integration and management of all contractors supporting the DoD and all USG PSCs operating in an area of contingency operations.
  • DoDI 3020.50, “Private Security Contractors (PSCs) Operating in Contingency Operations, Humanitarian or Peace Operations, or Other Military Operations or Exercises” was signed on August 1, 2011.  On August 11, 2011, a final rule entitled “U.S. Government Private Security Contractors Operating in a Contingency Operations, Combat Operations or Other Significant Military Operations,” applying to all US Agencies, was published in the Federal Register (32 CFR Part 159).  This Rule / DoDIprescribes the selection, accountability, training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing private security functions under a covered contract in a designated area of combat operations for both DoD and other agency PSCs.  It also prescribes incident reporting, use of and accountability for equipment, RUF, and a process for the discipline or removal, as appropriate, of USG PSC personnel.  The DoDI responds to requirements of section 862 of the FY 2008 NDAA as amended.
  • Operational Contract Support (OCS) Functional Capabilities Integration Board (FCIB). This senior executive-level governance forum was chartered by the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology & Logistics), in March 2010 to provide strategic leadership to multiple stakeholders working to institutionalize OCS.  Co-chaired by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Program Support) [DASD(PS)] and Joint Staff, Vice Director J-4, the FCIB convenes quarterly (or as required) to address strategic issues directly impacting current and future contingency operations.  On June 12, 2012, DASD (PS) and VD J4 convened the 3rd quarter FY12 OCS FCIB Principals meeting.  Key topics of discussion included 1) a proposal to complete an OCS Action Plan by September 30, 2012; 2) Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) alternative strategy for executing contract quality assurance in future contingency operations; 3) 2012 DCMA Combat Support Agency Review Team (CSAR) Final Report recommendations, and 4) On-going efforts to streamline oversight and reporting of DoD efforts to implement applicable Commission on Wartime Contracting recommendations.  The Board fully endorsed the proposal to develop a comprehensive OCS Action Plan. The plan, when finalized, will identify steps the Department will take during 2013-2017 to close the 10 most critical OCS gaps, offices of primary responsibility, near-term cost, and performance measures.  The 4th quarter FY12 OCS FCIB Principal's meeting will be held on August 28, 2012.  For additional information please contact the Board Secretariat at [email protected].
  • Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO).  DASD (Program Support) has institutionalized this organization to perform program management of Operational Contract Support (OCS) policy and doctrine, as well as operational synchronization of theater related contracting support planning efforts.  JCASO is an on-call joint enabling capability providing OCS coordination and integration during peacetime and contingency operations.  Planning, implementation, and oversight of OCS are Commander's responsibilities and are essential to supporting and monitoring the contractor element of the DOD Total Force.  JCASO has deployed a Mission Support Team during real-world operations (i.e. most recently at the request of AFRICOM in support of executing Operation ODYSSEY DAWN) and  may be called upon in future contingencies to assist a Combatant Command or Joint Task Force in establishing a joint construct for contracting support.  JCASO also has the capability available, upon request, to provide OCS management and coordination to Commanders during peacetime and contingency operations.  JCASO is also an essential part of DLA's combat support agency (CSA) role to support the mission objectives of the combatant commands, the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Title 10 responsibilities, as well as the Office of the Secretary of Defense for OCS policy development.  Recent examples of  JCASO missions include: a) facilitating USCENTCOM's theater engagement strategy in the South Caucuses and Central Asian States by assisting in the expansion of contract support in those countries, which enhances USCENTCOM's use of a Northern Distribution Network (NDN) to support OEF; b) participating in the Afghanistan Contracting Transition Workgroup (ACTW) to help plan the effective handoff of contracted support efforts from DoD to DoS at the appropriate time; and c) incorporating OCS into the operational training of the next forces into Afghanistan through participation in Exercise Unified Endeavor. 
  • Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Notice (CJCSN) 4130.01, "Guidance for Combatant Commander Employment of Operational Contract Support Enabler-Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO)" was signed on December 20, 2011.  It recognizes the role of JCASO as providing Geographic Combatant Commands and their subordinate commands with a capability to integrate, implement, manage, and execute OCS activities to improve DoD efficiency and effectiveness across the Total Force.  
  • JCASO Concept of Operations (CONOPS).  A detailed CONOPS  was signed on  27 June 2012, which further conveys JCASO's mission, role, and responsibility in OCS, to satisfy Combat Support Agency Review Team findings, and to complement the CJCSN 4130.01.  It will detail how JCASO engagement can help improve effectiveness and efficiency in managing OCS across DoD and whole of government. 
  • JCASO Contingency Contracting Office (CCO):  JCASO is establishing a Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) contingency/expeditionary contracting capability that responds to demand signals from Combatant Commands and deployed forces; complements Services’ contracting capabilities; extends and leverages existing DLA/JCASO capabilities; develops common operating pictures to support synchronization of all DLA contracting efforts; takes a programmatic approach to contracting, supporting any part of the acquisition cycle (policy, planning, requirements development, market research, contracting, or transition to civil authority); focuses on whole-of-government humanitarian assistance, disaster recovery (HA/DR) and counter-insurgency (COIN) operations; furthers best practices and use of Contingency Business Environment (CBE) tools, such as the Synchronized Pre-Deployment & Operational Tracker (SPOT), the Government Purchase Card (GPC), and the Joint Contingency Contracting System (JCCS); and supports SECDEF OCS and budget initiatives.  CCO Initial Operating Capability is planned in October 2012. 
  • JCASO Planners.  Fourteen (14) JCASO planners are allocated among the Geographic Combatant Commands to assist the commander in identifying gaps where contractor support capability may be required.  They then help to integrate required contractor support into operational plans and synchronize requirements with subordinate commands, the Military Departments, Defense Agencies, other USG Agencies, and coalition partners.  The Secretary further directed an additional 146 planners / analysts to be integrated into the total force.  The planners have been instrumental in integrating OCS into Combatant Command plans.  In USCENTCOM alone, the planners were fundamental in the establishment of the JTSCC, planning the DoD to DoS transition in Iraq, Pakistan humanitarian efforts, increased operations in Afghanistan, as well as other critical operations supporting USCENTCOM’s theater engagement strategy.  Based on demonstrated need for OCS planning capability in the Combatant Commands, DLA recently authorized JCASO to place a planner at forward locations in USFK and USFJ. 
  • Synchronized Predeployment and Operational Tracker (SPOT).  We continue our transition from manual accounting of contractor personnel to SPOT, a web-based, database tool designed to track contractor personnel and contractor capability in theater.  A SPOT-generated Letter of Authorization (LOA) is required for contractors receiving government furnished services in the USCENTCOM AOR.  Joint Asset Management and Movement System (JAMMS) scanners capture movement of contractor personnel through key life support and movement nodes using their LOA or other identification cards.  SPOT capability is continually evaluated to identify enhancements to improve functionality and ease user interface.  SPOT is being used to account for both contractor and DoD civilian personnel in Iraq.  DoS continues to utilize SPOT as the primary automated program management tool as they assume the lead for all USG contractors in Iraq.
  • SPOT Configuration Control Board (CCB). ODASD(PS), as the functional sponsor for SPOT, chairs a quarterly CCB.  This Board evaluates proposed enhancements to SPOT and prioritizes implementation to ensure consistency within funding parameters.  Membership includes participants from across the DoD OCS community, Department of State, and U.S. Agency for International Development.
  • Transition of Responsibility for SPOT Operational Execution.  In January 2012 the USD(P&R) assumed operational control, responsibility, support, custody and management of SPOT, specifically within the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) under the Defense Human Resources Activity (DHRA).  This creates synergies between SPOT and the Joint Personnel Accountability Reconciliation and Reporting (JPARR) tool.
  • Programs of Instruction for the non-acquisition workforce.  Contingency Contracting is taught by the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) as a special subject for key acquisition personnel.  DoD has developed Programs of Instruction (POI) on contingency acquisition for our non-acquisition workforce to be taught at military staff and senior staff colleges.  This training focuses all leaders on determining requirements, translating those requirements into Statements of Work (SOW), and then overseeing work.  Additionally, JFCOM has developed a ‘Joint Knowledge Online’ program which provides globally available web-based individual training and knowledge services.  Online courses currently available include an ‘Intro to Operational Contract Support (OCS) Commander and Staff Course’ for our deployed Commander/Staff Officers and an ‘OCS FO/GO Essentials Course’ for our Flag and General Officers.  An OCS Planners Course has been added for the non-acquisition military planner.
  • Operational Contract Support Concept of Operations (CONOPS).  The CONOPs, signed on March 31, 2010, outlines how the operational and acquisition communities plan and execute OCS during complex operations involving support, not just to the joint force, but to our multinational, other government agency and interagency partners as well.  The Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) has endorsed the CONOPS.

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