Iraq – Afghanistan Contractor Census, 3rd quarter (Apr – Jun 2013)
CONTRACTOR SUPPORT OF U.S. OPERATIONS IN THE USCENTCOM AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY TO INCLUDE IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN
BACKGROUND: This report updates DoD contractor personnel numbers in theater and outlines DoD efforts to improve management of contractors accompanying U.S. forces. It covers DoD contractor personnel deployed in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF); Iraq; and, the U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) area of responsibility (AOR).
KEY POINTS: In 3rd quarter FY 2013, USCENTCOM reported approximately 129,100 contractor personnel working for the DoD in the USCENTCOM AOR. This total reflects a slight decrease from the previous quarter. The number of contractors outside of Afghanistan and Iraq make up about 15% of the total contractor population in the USCENTCOM AOR. A breakdown of DoD contractor personnel is provided below:
DoD Contractor Personnel in the USCENTCOM AOR
• The distribution of contractors in Afghanistan by mission category are:
- Base Support: 11,713 (12%)
- Commo Support: 3,300 ( 3%)
- Construction: 8,413 ( 8%)
- Logistics/Maintenance: 22,092 (22%)
- Security: 16,218 (16%)
- Training: 3,147 ( 3%)
- Translator/Interpreter: 7,680 ( 8%)
- Transportation: 7,252 ( 7%)
- Other* 22,040 (21%)
- Total: 101,855
*Includes Defense Logistics Agency, Army Materiel Command, Air Force External and Systems Support contracts, Special Operations Command and INSCOM.
- OEF Contractor Posture Highlights:
- In 3rd quarter FY13 there were approximately 101.8K DoD contractors in Afghanistan. The overall contractor footprint in Afghanistan decreased by 5.5% from 2nd quarter FY13.
- The contractor to military ratio in Afghanistan is 1.43 to 1 (based on 71.5K military as of June 7, 2013).
- There will be substantial contractor reductions over this fiscal year, as a result of base closures, the return to expeditionary standards, and transition of security to the APPF.
- Local Nationals (LN) currently make up 36.7% of the DoD contracted workforce in Afghanistan. The use of LNs remains important to COIN strategy.
- Contractor Posture Highlights:
- In 3rd quarter FY13, the total number of contractors supporting the U.S. Government in Iraq (DoD + DOS) was approximately 10.3K. There will be substantial contractor reductions in 2013 reflecting consolidation of sites, completion of ongoing activity, and increased utilization of host country service and labor.
- The DoS and DOS continue to refine the requirements for contract support. Some contractor personnel employed under DoD contracts are supporting State Department and other civilian activities under the Chief of Mission, Iraq. These DoD contractors are provided on a reimbursable basis.
General Data on DoD Private Security Contractor Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan
- Private security contractors (PSC) perform personal security, convoy security, and static security missions. Not all PSC personnel are armed.
- USCENTCOM reports, as of 3rd quarter FY 2013, the following distribution of PSCs in Afghanistan and Iraq:
DoD Private Security Contractor Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan
- In Afghanistan, the transition from PSCs to the use of the APPF continues, but at a slower rate than originally expected. In accordance with Presidential Decree 62, all security contracts except diplomatic security were to transition by 20 March 2012. The APPF, however, is not at Full Operational Capability and it is cannot be determined when it will achieve that capability.
- A bridging strategy negotiated between the MoI and USF-A sequences the implementation of APPF provided security through the end of December 2014.
Afghan Public Protection Force
General Conditions Regarding Contracts and Contractor Personnel
- The Combatant Commander has provided specific guidance on arming contractor personnel and PSC’s in the USCENTCOM AOR through a series of Fragmentary Orders (FRAGOs) and other authoritative guidance, including the following:
- PSC personnel are not authorized to participate in offensive operations and must comply with specific USCENTCOM Rules for the Use of Force (RUF). Under these RUF, PSC personnel are authorized to use deadly force only when necessary in: self-defense, defense of facilities / persons as specified in their contract; prevention of life-threatening acts directed against civilians; or defense of Coalition-approved property specified within their contract.
- PSC personnel in Afghanistan and Iraq must be properly licensed to carry arms in accordance with host nation law and must receive USCENTCOM / Coalition Forces’ approval of their operations. DoD contractor personnel armed by DoD authority must report any use of force, including the firing of a weapon. This requirement and the required information to be submitted are identified within the terms of the contract, USFOR-A OPLAN 09-01, and Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq (OSC-I) policy.
Improvements to Management and Oversight of DoD Contractors
- Operational Contract Support Drawdown Cell (OCSDC). The United States Forces-Afghanistan Operational Contract Support Drawdown Cell (OCSDC) was stood up in August 2012 with a mission to manage the programmatic drawdown of contracts, the contractor workforce and associated equipment in the Combined Joint Operations Area-Afghanistan. Through the efforts of its Program Management Integration and Regional Teams, the OCSDC has influenced requirements reduction in the CJOA-A resulting in a net decrease of BOG contractors to under 95,000 in July 2013. Additional efforts to reduce requirements include LOGCAP De-Scope of option Year 3 requirements and portfolio reviews of mission areas with USFOR-A. OCSDC, in cooperation with DCMO, has also created a common operating picture of the contractors in the CJOA-A that allows for tracking of contractor populations by functional sector.
- CENTCOM Joint Theater Support Contracting Command (C-JTSCC). C-JTSCC has centralized oversight and authority to ensure all contracts executed in Afghanistan are visible and in compliance with contracting policy and procedures. C-JTSCC headquarters has been re-located to Afghanistan with a small support staff remaining in Qatar and facilitates broader theater contracting oversight functions. The command transitioned from two to one star general officer. In coordination with the OCSDC, C-JTSCC is evaluating local vendor capability to perform critically needed services previously provided by LOGCAP, but on a much smaller scale. This will ensure support to the warfighter continues while simultaneously reducing the number of US and other country national contractors.
- JP 4-10 (Operational Contract Support). The Joint Staff J4 is revising JP 4-10 Operational Contract Support which serves as the doctrine for planning, conducting, and assessing operational contract support integration and contractor management functions in support of joint operations. The second draft review package is being prepared for review. Target print date is 2QFY14. The original version was published October, 2008.
- Defense Standards for Security Services.
- Business and operational standards for PSCs (which were required by Section 833 of the FY2011 NDAA) are now complete and were validated by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in early March 2012. The associated conformity assessment to enable third party certification was published in April 2012. A maturity model, allowing companies and contract management to assess the degree of conformity with the standard, was approved by ANSI in January 2012.
- On May 22, 2012, DoD issued instructions (PGI) to the DFARS requiring compliance with the ANSI PSC standard for combat operations and other contingency operations. 149 contracts for security functions now include language requiring conformity with this standard.
- Standards and provision for third party certification in Section 833 of the FY 2011 NDAA will facilitate identifying technically acceptable contractors and best value which: enables expedited contract award; mitigates risk of delay of services due to contract award protests; and, mitigates risk of contractor non-performance or misconduct in critical early phases of contingency operations. Conformity assessment standards and the associated maturity model also provide valuable tools for DoD contract oversight.
- The United Kingdom has adopted the PSC ANSI standards as their national standard ensuring continuity between the key allies.
- Operational Contract Support (OCS) Functional Capabilities Integration Board (FCIB).
This senior executive-level governance forum was chartered by the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology & Logistics), in March 2010 to provide strategic leadership to multiple stakeholders working to institutionalize OCS. Co-chaired by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Program Support) [DASD(PS)] and Joint Staff, Vice Director J-4, the FCIB convenes quarterly (or as required) to address strategic issues directly impacting current and future contingency operations. During the 3rd quarter FY13 meeting, the Board received a classified update from the Director, OCS Draw Down Cell – Afghanistan and discussed emerging initiatives such as OCS Joint Exercise 2014, Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) Alternate Strategy for Executing Contract Quality Assurance, and status of the Contingency Business Environment (CBE) Board of Governors/Deputy Chief Management Officer (DCMO) Lines of Effort. The Board gained insight into the accomplishments and challenges facing the OCS Draw Down Cell and fully endorsed the Joint Staff J-4 proposal to execute the first DoD Joint Contracting and OCS readiness exercise in 2014 (currently under development). The Board noted with approval, the need for continued involvement by other J-codes engaging in development and planning to ensure proper identification of end-to-end contingency tools/systems and gap analysis. The FCIB Chair requested a follow-on senior executive strategy session with the Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy (DPAP), Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology & Logistics), Deputy Chief Management Officer (DCMO) and Joint Staff J-4 to develop a plan to better integrate, leverage, and utilize DCMO’s expertise and capabilities to advance development and sustainment of OCS tools and systems. There was frequent discussion and desire for continued work on the Civilian Expeditionary Workforce (CEW) initiative, noting its contribution to the Total Force. The next quarterly OCS FCIB Principals’ meeting will be held on August 27, 2013 in the Army Conference Center. Contact the Board Secretariat at [email protected] for additional information.
- Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO). DASD (Program Support) has institutionalized this organization to perform program management of OCS and to provide a pre-planned approach for planning and implementing OCS policy and doctrine. JCASO provides a joint enabling capability to integrate, coordinate and synchronize OCS during peacetime, contingency operations, and post-conflict operations. Planning, implementation, and oversight of OCS are Commander's responsibilities and are essential to establishing a strategy for managing contractors on the battlefield as part of the DoD Total Force. JCASO has a deployable capability known as the Mission Support Teams and may be requested to provide OCS planning and program management (PgM) during peacetime, contingency and post-conflict operations. JCASO is also an essential part of DLA's combat support agency (CSA) role to support the mission objectives of the combatant commands, the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Title 10 responsibilities, as well as the Office of the Secretary of Defense for OCS policy and joint doctrine development and implementation. Examples of JCASO engagements include: a) deploying teams for 6-month rotations to support the OCSDC and provide expertise in the drawdown efforts; b) leading and managing the economic development initiative (i.e., local procurements) in the Central Asian States in support of the Northern Distribution Network (NDN) strategy in the USCENTCOM AOR; c) leading and managing the Afghanistan Contract Transition Workgroup (ACTW) to facilitate the interagency coordination for planning and transitioning OCS from DoD to DOS; and d) participating in joint exercises in 2013 (e.g., PANAMAX, Ulchi Freedom Guardian) to integrate OCS in training and validate the effectiveness of OCS plans.
- Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Notice (CJCSN) 4130.01, "Guidance for Combatant Commander Employment of Operational Contract Support Enabler-Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO)" was signed on December 20, 2011 and remains in effect through 2014. It recognizes the role of JCASO as providing Geographic Combatant Commands and their subordinate commands with a capability to integrate, implement, manage, and execute OCS activities to improve DoD efficiency and effectiveness across the Total Force.
- JCASO Concept of Operations (CONOPS). A detailed CONOPS was signed on June 27 2012, which further conveys JCASO's mission, role, and responsibility in OCS, to satisfy Combat Support Agency Review Team findings, and to complement the CJCSN 4130.01. It will detail how JCASO engagement can help improve effectiveness and efficiency in managing OCS across DoD and whole of government.
- JCASO Contingency Contracting Office (CCO): JCASO is establishing a joint contingency contracting capability that responds to demand signals from Combatant Commands and deployed forces; complements Services’ contracting capabilities; extends and leverages existing DLA/JCASO capabilities; takes a programmatic approach to contracting, supporting OCS planning and synchronization, requirements development, market research, and contracting; focuses on humanitarian assistance, disaster recovery (HA/DR) and counter-insurgency (COIN) support; and supports SECDEF OCS and budget initiatives. CCO Initial Operating Capability is planned in October 2013.
- JCASO Planners. Seventeen (17) JCASO planners are allocated among the Geographic Combatant Commands to assist the commander in identifying gaps where contractor support capability may be required. They help to integrate required contractor support into operational plans and synchronize requirements with subordinate commands, the Military Departments, Defense Agencies, other USG Agencies, and coalition partners. The planners have been instrumental in integrating OCS into Combatant Command plans. In USCENTCOM alone, the planners were fundamental in the establishment of the JTSCC, planning the DoD to DOS transition in Iraq, Pakistan humanitarian efforts, increased operations in Afghanistan, as well as other critical operations supporting USCENTCOM’s theater engagement strategy. Based on demonstrated need for additional OCS planning capability in USPACOM, JCASO recently established new planners at forward locations in USFK and USFJ.
- Synchronized Predeployment and Operational Tracker Enterprise Suite (SPOT-ES). SPOT-ES is the joint enterprise suite of systems employed for the management, tracking and visibility of contracted capability and contractors authorized to accompany the US forces during contingency operations. SPOT-ES is comprised of four systems that collectively provide leadership with awareness of the contractor footprint and contracted capability in the Area of Operations. SPOT (NIPRNet and SIPRNet) is the authoritative system of record personnel accountability database. SPOT automatically generates a Letter-of Authorization (LOA) which identifies government furnished services authorized under the contract. Joint Asset Movement Management System (JAMMS) captures movement and location information via an automated scan at key life support collection points. JAMMS can read a variety of formats, such as a Common Access Card (CAC), LOA, biometric credentials, driver’s license and passport. Total Operational Picture Support System (TOPSS) is the business intelligence and reporting tool that integrates data from SPOT, JAMMS, and other systems. It has the ability to accept and convert manual files to full web services. TOPSS currently includes 28 pre-generated standard reports as well as an ad hoc reporting capability. It includes customizable geospatial mapping of data points and trend analysis. SPOT-ES capability is continually evaluated to identify enhancements that will improve functionality and ease of user interface. DOS is utilizing SPOT as the primary automated program management tool for all USG contractors in Iraq.
- SPOT Configuration Control Board (CCB). ODASD(PS), as the functional sponsor for SPOT, co-chairs a quarterly CCB. This Board evaluates proposed enhancements to SPOT and prioritizes implementation to ensure consistency within funding parameters. Membership includes participants from across the DoD OCS community, DOS, and U.S. Agency for International Development. The 3Q FY13 CCB held on 25 April approved an enhancement that allows for more detailed auditing capability. The next CCB is scheduled for August 6.
- Operational Contract Support (OCS) Learning Framework. The Department continues to make progress on the Secretary’s and the Chairman's vision for OCS education and training. Several parallel efforts are underway to incorporate OCS into a holistic learning framework that includes education, individual and collective training, exercises, and lessons learned primarily aimed at non-acquisition personnel.
- OCS in Joint Professional Military Education (JPME). As reported, OCS has been a Chairman’s JPME Special Area of Emphasis (SAE) each year since 2009. A 2012 study on OCS education and training observed a general lack of uniformity and depth in OCS content. To rectify this, Joint Staff (J4) OCS and Services Division (OCSSD) developed an OCS Curriculum Development Guide (CDG) to provide specific OCS learning objectives to help JPME faculty create and integrate effective OCS learning into all five JPME levels. Version 2.0 of the CDG, which was completed in October 2012 and included authoritative reference material, was distributed to JPME institutions in December 2012. The OCS CDG also incorporates distance learning through three Joint Knowledge Online (JKO) OCS courses. The Joint Staff (J4) briefed the faculty of the JPME schools on the FY2013 NDAA language requiring OCS as part of JPME in June 2013 at the Joint Faculty Education Conference. At this point, JPME faculty need time to incorporate OCS into their curricula. The Joint Staff (J4) will work with Joint Staff (J7) to monitor their progress and revisit the issue if needed.
- Lessons Learned. The Department has prepared and is currently reviewing a comprehensive lessons learned report for submission to the House Armed Services Committee later this year. For tactical and operational lessons learned, the Joint Staff (J4), OCSSD is the focal point for documenting and processing lessons through the Joint Lessons Learned Program.
- Exercises. The OCS Joint Exercise (OCSJX-14), scheduled for January 2014, aims at training the two primary audiences associated with the OCS tasks of “Contracting Support” and “Contract Support Integration.” The OCSJX series will be the largest joint contracting field training and OCS training exercise of its type. The exercise will train Army, Air Force, Navy, Marines, Reserve, National Guard Soldiers, Government Civilians and contractors in a 10-day mission readiness exercise simulating OCS in a joint regional contracting center aligned with NORTHCOM defense support to civil authorities (DSCA)-simulated response forces.
- Collective and Staff Training. The Chairman’s Joint Training Guidance Notice (CJCSN 3500.01) provides annual guidance to all DOD Components for planning executing, and assessing joint training for three consecutive years. It includes High Interest Training Issues (HITIs) which are CJCS special-interest items that CCDRs should consider for emphasis in their training and exercise programs. OCS will be part of the Joint Logistics Enterprise HITI in this year’s notice. In September 2013, the Joint Staff (J4) will also release the Joint Mission Essential Task Metrics and Readiness (JMR) Guide to assist planners in integrating OCS into exercises to comply with the Joint Training Guidance.
- Individual Training. DoD created three joint OCS courses in a computer-based training format in 2009. The three courses were “joint training certified” in 2013 and are hosted on JKO, the joint community’s web portal for providing key joint training. As of 3 June 2013, 535 personnel have completed these joint certified OCS courses. In addition to the JKO courses and Contracting Officer’s Representative training, the Joint Staff (J4) OCSSD is developing a Joint OCS Planning and Execution Course (JOPEC) and working with the Army Logistics University to develop a Joint OCS Requirements Development and Execution Course (JORDEC) from an existing Army OCS course. The initial JOPEC pilot will take place 16-25 July 2013 at Fort Lee, VA. The planned course rollout at Geographic Combatant Commands and their Service components for FY 14 follows:
─ NORTHCOM (7-18 October 2013)
─ EUCOM &AFRICOM 1st QTR FY 14
─ PACOM 2nd QTR FY 14
─ CENTCOM, SOCOM, &SOUTHCOM 3rd QTR FY 14
─ USFK (U.S. Forces Korea) & USFJ (U.S. Forces Japan) 3rd QTR FY 14
The JORDEC is still under development, but will likely debut by the second quarter of FY2014.
- OCS Planning. On October 18, 2012, the Joint Staff published the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual (CJCSM) 3130.03 Adaptive Planning and Execution (APEX) Planning Formats and Guidance. The CJCSM 3130.03 sets forth administrative instructions for joint operation plan formats. Specific to OCS planning, CJCSM 3130.03 details where OCS requirements will be identified and by whom. The Joint Staff (J4) is developing a separate manual, CJCSM 4301, OCS Planning, to assist OCS planners in developing procedures and guidance that effectively integrate, synchronize, prioritize, and focus OCS capabilities on achieving a supported commander’s operational objectives and desired effects for various types of plans, including contingency plans.
- DoD Directive (DoDD) 3020.49 on Orchestrating, Synchronizing, and Integrating Program Management of Contingency Acquisition Planning and its Operational Execution was signed on March 24, 2009. It establishes policy and assigns responsibilities for program management for the preparation and execution of acquisitions for contingency operations, and for the accountability, integration and management of all contractors supporting the DoD and all USG PSCs operating in an area of contingency operations.
- DoD Instruction (DoDI) 3020.41. A revised version of DoDI 3020.41, “Operational Contract Support,” formerly entitled “Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany the U.S. Armed Forces,” was signed on December 20th, 2011. It was also published as 32 CFR Part 158. This version contains significant changes to the previous instruction including: (1) incorporation of lessons learned from current operations; (2) requirements for the development of contractor oversight plans; (3) requirements for adequate military personnel necessary to execute contract oversight; and, (4) standards of medical care for deployed contractors. Further, it reiterates the importance of the use of a common database for the accountability and visibility of contractors supporting DoD contingency operations.
- DoDI 3020.50, “Private Security Contractors (PSCs) Operating in Contingency Operations, Humanitarian or Peace Operations, or Other Military Operations or Exercises” was signed on August 1, 2011. On August 11, 2011, a final rule entitled “U.S. Government Private Security Contractors Operating in a Contingency Operations, Combat Operations or Other Significant Military Operations,” applying to all US Agencies, was published in the Federal Register (32 CFR Part 159). This Rule / DoDI prescribes the selection, accountability, training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing private security functions under a covered contract in a designated area of combat operations for both DoD and other agency PSCs. It also prescribes incident reporting, use of and accountability for equipment, RUF, and a process for the discipline or removal, as appropriate, of USG PSC personnel. The DoDI responds to requirements of section 862 of the FY 2008 NDAA as amended.
- OCS Concept of Operations (CONOPS). The CONOPs, signed on March 31, 2010, outlines how the operational and acquisition communities plan and execute OCS during complex operations involving support, not just to the joint force, but to our multinational, other government agency and interagency partners as well. The Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) has endorsed the CONOPS.