Iraq — Afghanistan Contractor Census, FY 3rd quarter (May – July 2015)
BACKGROUND: This report updates DoD contractor personnel numbers in theater and outlines DoD efforts to improve management of contractors accompanying U.S. forces. It covers DoD contractor personnel deployed in Afghanistan (Operation Freedom’s Sentinel), Iraq (Operation Inherent Resolve), and the U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) area of responsibility (AOR).
KEY POINTS: In 3rd quarter FY 2015, USCENTCOM reported approximately 41,922 contractor personnel working for the DoD in the USCENTCOM AOR. This total reflects a decrease of approximately 7.5K from the previous quarter. A breakdown of DoD contractor personnel is provided below:
The distribution of contractors in Afghanistan by mission category are:
- Logistics/Maintenance 14,716 (51%)
- Base Support 2,169 (7%)
- Commo Support 1,099 (4%)
- Construction 1,735 (6%)
- Security 1,779 (6%)
- Training 867 (3%)
- Translator/Interpreter 1,591 (5%)
- Transportation 2,169 (8%)
- Medical/Dental/Social Services 145 (1%)
- Management/Administrative 2,314 (8%)
- Other 347 (1%)
Operation Freedom’s Sentinel Contractor Posture:
o In 3rd quarter FY15 there were approximately 28.9K DoD contractors in Afghanistan. The overall contractor footprint in Afghanistan decreased by 6.5% from 2nd quarter FY15.
o Local nationals comprise 42% of total contractor force
o Fewer operating locations have led to reduced contracted support.
The distribution of contractors in Iraq by mission category are:
- Logistics/Maintenance 434 (32%)
- Base Support: 98 (7%)
- Commo Support 46 (3%)
- Construction: 89 (6.5%)
- Security 43 (3%)
- Training 23 (2%)
- Translator/Interpreter 355 (27%)
- Transportation 123 (9%)
- Management/Administrative 119 (9%)
- Other 18 (1.5%)
Operation Inherent Resolve Contractor Posture;
o As of 3rd quarter 2015, there are approximately 6,850 contractors supporting US government operation
General Data on DoD Private Security Contractor Personnel in Afghanistan
Private security contractors (PSC) perform personal security, convoy security, and static security missions.
USCENTCOM reports, as of 3rd quarter FY 2015, the following distribution of PSCs in Afghanistan:
In Afghanistan, the mobile security functions are the responsibility of the Afghanistan Public Protection Force (APPF). Under an agreement between USFOR-A/ISAF and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Defense Department will temporarily use contractors for static security.
Improvements to Management and Oversight of DoD Contractors
Operational Contract Support Integration Cell (OCSIC). The USFOR-A OCSIC (formerly the OCS Drawdown Cell) was established in August 2012 with a mission to manage the programmatic drawdown of contracts, the contractor workforce and associated equipment in the Combined Joint Operations Area-Afghanistan (CJOA-A). Through the efforts of its Program Management Integration and Regional Teams, the OCSIC influenced requirements reduction in the CJOA-A resulting in a decrease of boots on ground contractors. Lessons learned from implementation of the OCSIC informed recent revision of doctrine (JP 4-10) on the OCS Integration Cell. The OCSIC continues to review and coordinate government furnished life support (GFLS) requests, track and report contractor numbers and contractor managed government owned (CMGO) equipment, and review and assess contracts and contracted support across multiple portfolios/functional areas.
CENTCOM Joint Theater Support Contracting Command (C-JTSCC) Transition to U.S. Army Expeditionary Contracting Command - Afghanistan. C-JTSCC transitioned responsibility for the contract execution and visibility in Afghanistan to Expeditionary Contracting Command – Afghanistan (ECC-A) effective 17 June 2015. In coordination with the OCSIC, ECC-A is continuing to evaluate local vendor capability to perform critically needed services previously provided by LOGCAP, but on a much smaller scale. This will ensure support to the warfighter continues while simultaneously reducing the number of US and other country national contractors. The inbound rotation of Army personnel, to include the Senior Contracting Official (SCO) was completed in March 2015 and supports USARCENT's role as the Lead Service for Contracting (LSC).
JP 4-10 (Operational Contract Support). The Joint Staff J4 has updated JP 4-10 Operational Contract Support, which serves as the doctrine for planning, conducting, and assessing OCS integration and contractor management functions in support of joint operations. This update to OCS doctrine was published on 16 July 2014.
Defense Standards for Security Services.
o Pursuant to Section 833 of the FY2011 NDAA, compliance with American National Standard ANSI PSC.1-2012, “Quality Management Standard for Private Security Company Operations” is required in all DoD contracts for private security services. The requirements and guidance of this standard implement all PSC relevant provisions of US law, Defense Directives and instructions, and promoted consistency with international agreements. Demonstrated compliance with this standard will facilitate identifying technically acceptable contractors and best value. This will enable expedited contract award; mitigate risk of delay of services due to contract award protests; and mitigate risk of contractor non-performance or misconduct in critical early phases of contingency operations. The United Kingdom also requires compliance with this ANSI PSC standard.
o An international (ISO) version of this standard was approved by ISO and is currently being prepared for publication. This will enable international acceptance of the standards in use by the United States and the United Kingdom, increasing consistency and legal compliance in the provision of all PSC services everywhere. ISO recognition will improve competition and manage risk in operational environments which will include PSCs not under the direct control of US or coalition forces. Final approval by ISO and release for publication is expected in Summer 2015. PSCs will be able to demonstrate compliance with either the ANSI or the ISO standard.
Operational Contract Support (OCS) Functional Capabilities Integration Board (FCIB). This senior executive–level governance forum was chartered by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics in March 2010 to provide strategic leadership to multiple stakeholders working to institutionalize OCS. Co-Chaired by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Support and Vice Director for Logistics, Joint Staff J4, the FCIB convenes quarterly or as required. On May 19, 2015, the FCIB convened the Third Quarter FY15 Principals meeting. The Board received the following information briefs:
o Defense Contract Management Agency Contingency Response Force Update
o OCS Joint Exercise 2015
o U.S. Marine Corps OCS Update
o Office of the Deputy Chief Management Officer OCS Return on Investment Analysis The Fourth Quarter FY15 OCS FCIB Principals has been rescheduled to accommodate the DoD OCS Senior Leader Summit. It will now be held on September 16, 2015.
Joint Contingency Acquisition Support Office (JCASO). Planning, implementation, and oversight of OCS are Commander's responsibilities and are essential to establishing a strategy for managing contractors on the battlefield as part of the DoD Total Force. JCASO provides the Combatant Commands a joint enabling capability to integrate, coordinate and synchronize OCS during peacetime, contingency operations, and post-conflict operations. JCASO is an essential part of DLA's combat support agency (CSA) role to support the mission objectives of the combatant commands, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Title 10 responsibilities, as well as the Office of the Secretary of Defense for OCS policy development and implementation. Examples of current JCASO engagements include:
o Deploying teams for 6-month rotations to support the OCS Integration Cell (OCSIC) and provide expertise in the drawdown efforts; o Supporting ARCENT in establishing and developing an OCSIC, related policy, processes and products; o Assisting NATO HQ Operation RESOLUTE support in establishing an OCS Cell to provide oversight on contactor management;
o Providing OCS support as requested or directed to CCMDs, Service components, and others, including HA/DR such as Operation UNITED ASSISTANCE;
o Participating in joint exercises (e.g., OCS Joint Exercise and AUSTERE CHALLENGE) to integrate OCS in training and assess the effectiveness of OCS plans
Establishing the Afghanistan Contract Transition Workgroup (ACTW) to facilitate the interagency coordination for planning and transitioning OCS from DoD to DOS;
Leading and managing the economic development initiative (i.e., local procurements) in the Central Asian States in support of the Northern Distribution Network (NDN) strategy in the USCENTCOM AOR, and in Africa in support of USAFRICOM;
Training and Education
Delivering the OCS module in the Joint Logistics Course at the Army Logistics University;
In coordination with the Joint Staff J-4 as the responsible office of OCS joint training, conduct training of assigned and follow-on forces at the Service Component and Task Force Level(s) to perform the functions of an OCSIC
JCASO Expeditionary Contracting: JCASO provides a joint expeditionary contracting capability by extending and leveraging DLA’s extensive contracting capabilities while simultaneously complementing the Services’ capacities. It furthers best practices through a programmatic approach, and is expected to focus on humanitarian assistance and disaster relief contract support. JCASO responds to demand signals from Combatant Commands and deployed forces, such as providing expeditionary contracting support in Operation UNITED ASSISTANCE, the USCENTCOM Central Asia States (CAS) local sourcing procurement initiative, and the DLA-E/A and USAFRICOM initiative to help leverage existing DLA contracts and develop new contract solutions that address USAFRICOM’s evolving mission. Most recently, JCASO deployed a Contingency Contracting Officer (CCO) within 48 hours to provide support in response to the May 2015 earthquake in Nepal. Embedded with DLA Pacific and the III Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), JCASO assisted with the USPACOM Joint Contracting Support Board (JCSB) for efforts concerning Nepal and Thailand. Per the PACOM AFICA SCO, this was the “best application of OCS to-date during a real mission in the Pacific.”
JCASO Planners. Seventeen (17) JCASO planners are allocated among the Geographic Combatant Commands to assist commanders in identifying gaps where a contracted support capability may be required. Planners integrate contracted support into operational plans and synchronize requirements with subordinate commands, the Military Departments, Defense Agencies, other USG Agencies, and coalition partners. The planners have been instrumental in integrating OCS into Combatant Command plans. Based on demonstrated need for additional OCS planning capability in USPACOM, JCASO also established OCS planners at forward locations in USFK and USFJ.
SPOT Configuration Control Board (CCB). ODASD(PS), as the functional sponsor for SPOT, co-chairs a quarterly CCB. This Board evaluates proposed enhancements to SPOT and prioritizes implementation to ensure consistency within funding parameters. Membership includes participants from across the DoD OCS community, DOS, and U.S. Agency for International Development.
Operational Contract Support (OCS) Learning Framework. The Department continues to make progress on the Secretary’s and the Chairman's vision for OCS education and training. Several parallel efforts are underway to incorporate OCS into a holistic learning framework that includes education, individual and collective training, exercises, and lessons learned primarily aimed at non-acquisition personnel.
o OCS in Joint Professional Military Education (JPME). The Joint Staff (J7) revised CJCSI 1800.01E, “Officer Professional Military Education Policy (OPMEP)” on 29 May 2015. It now includes eleven (11) specific learning areas incorporating OCS into 3 of the 5 levels of PME/JPME (IAW 10 USC § 2151) which reaches officers in the grades of O-4 to O-10. As part of the process for accreditation of joint education (PAJE) visits, the Joint Staff J7’s Joint Education Division queries JPME institutions on their inclusion of OCS in curricula. Joint Staff (J4) OCS and Services Division (OCSSD) has begun work on Version 3.0 of the OCS Curriculum Development Guide (CDG) to fully integrate the OPMEP changes and offer JPME institutions guidance and options for teaching OCS to include more actionable enabling learning objectives to address the 11 OCS learning areas in the OPMEP. The Joint Staff (J4) continues to brief faculty of JPME schools on developments in OCS as part of the Joint Faculty Education Conference held annually. The Joint Staff (J4) has worked with the Joint and Combined Warfighting School (JCWS) of the Joint Forces Staff College for specific inclusion of OCS topics in their curriculum as they concentrate on joint planning with a throughput of 1200 students per year. Beginning January 2015, JCWS now dedicates 1 hour to OCS during the 2 week introductory phase of the course and then continues to “pull the OCS thread” throughout the fundamentals of unified action (FUA) module during the remaining 8 weeks of Campaign Planning, Contingency Planning and Crisis Action Planning.
o Lessons Learned. The Department is working to address the findings from the Government Accountability Office’s report on lessons learned. The Joint Staff (J4), OCSSD is working with the JCASO to document and implement an OCS Lessons Learned Concept of Operations (CONOPS) and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for collecting, analyzing, and processing OCS lessons at the tactical, operational, and strategic level. The CONOPS and SOP will use and leverage DOD’s official system of record for lessons learned, the Joint Lessons Learned Information System (JLISS) and the Chairman’s Joint Lessons Learned Program.
o Exercises. The second OCS Joint Exercise (OCSJX-15) was two-phased and took place at Ft. Bliss, Texas and Schofield Barracks, Hawaii between 10 March and 12 April. The exercise trained over 1,100 participants on the OCS tasks for Contract Support Integration, Contracting Support, and Contractor Management. The OCSJX-15 scenario was based on the TALISMAN SABRE scenario in the USPACOM area of responsibility. The training audience included OCS staff members from USPACOM, USPACAF, US Army Expeditionary Contracting Command's 412th Contract Support Brigade, US Air Force and Navy contracting personnel. Other key DOD stakeholders that participated were: USACE, DLA JCASO, DASD-PS, and DPAP. Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom also participated. Planning for OCSJX-16 is underway and this year’s event uses a USSOUTHCOM PANAMAX scenario as the backdrop and the US Army Contracting Command is providing the exercise director. Execution of this year’s OCS joint functional exercise is planned at Fort Bliss, Texas in mid-March through mid-April 2016.
o Collective and Staff Training. The Chairman’s Joint Training Guidance Notice (CJCSN 3500.01) provides annual guidance to all DOD Components for planning, executing, and assessing joint training for three consecutive years. It includes High Interest Training Issues (HITIs) which are CJCS special-interest items that CCDRs should consider for emphasis in their training and exercise programs. OCS considerations are reflected in the “Ethics, Values, and Leadership” HITI, the “Joint Logistics Enterprise” HITI, the Joint Operational Access HITI, and the main document as part of efforts to realize Joint Force 2020.
o Universal Joint Tasks & Joint Metrics & Readiness Guide. The Joint Staff (J4) revised the Universal Joint Tasks (UJTs) for OCS, which incorporate lessons learned from OCSJX- 14, OCSJX-15, and new doctrine on OCS from Joint Publication 4-10 (16 July 2014). As a result, there are now 4 primary OCS UJTs (ST 4.8, Conduct OCS; ST 4.5.1, Perform Contract Support Integration; OP 220.127.116.11 Provide Contracting Support; ST 4.5.2, Perform Contractor Management) and OCS has been integrated into the notes of 101 other existing UJTs. In addition to having OCS UJTs documented in the UJT List (UJTL), the updated UJTs will be published in a revised Joint Metrics and Readiness (JMR) Guide, v. 1.0 in 2015. The Guide assists planners in integrating OCS into joint training and exercises to help ensure realistic readiness assessments for OCS.
o Individual Training. ODASD (PS) and OCSSD are working together to update the three joint OCS computer-based courses released in 2009. The three courses were “joint training certified” in 2013 and are hosted on JKO, the joint community’s web portal for providing key distributed joint training. In May 2015, initial operational capability (IOC) was established for a new and improved course, Joint OCS Essentials for Commanders & Staff (JOECS), to reflect doctrinal changes in Joint Publication (JP) 4-10 and replace the former OCS introductory-level course. Full operational capability (FOC) is expected by the first quarter of FY16. In addition to the JKO courses and Contracting Officer’s Representative training by the Defense Acquisition University (DAU), the Joint Staff (J4) OCSSD teaches a Joint OCS Planning and Execution Course (JOPEC) at the geographic combatant commands (GCCs) via mobile training teams (MTTs). JOPEC has been taught at every GCC in FY 2014 and again in FY 2015. 384 students have been trained to-date. An additional 60 students are expected to complete JOPEC in the remainder of FY 2015. JOPEC received its joint certification on 15 December 2014.The JS J4 is seeking to permanently establish JOPEC at a JPME institution or a joint training center.
o On February 25, 2015 Army Logistics University (ALU) began teaching a revised Army OCS course program of instruction. Approved by the Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) in January 2014, the new course places greater emphasis on mission analysis, requirements development and OCS across the joint force. TRADOC recently examined the Army’s OCS course curriculum as part of ALU’s accreditation review, and the course earned high marks from evaluators. In addition, ALU has hired two additional instructors, with plans to hire more in the near future.
OCS Planning. Using the guidance found in the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual (CJCSM) 3130.03 Adaptive Planning and Execution (APEX) Planning Formats and Guidance, the Combatant Commands continue to document and expand their OCS planning efforts and products. The Joint Staff (J4) is developing a separate manual, CJCSM 4301.01A, Planning OCS, to assist OCS planners in developing procedures and guidance that integrate, synchronize, prioritize, and focus OCS capabilities on achieving a supported commander’s operational objectives and desired effects for the various types of plans. The Joint Staff J4 is actively involved in the review of Combatant Command Contingency and Operational Plans, as a member of the Joint Planning Execution Community (JPEC).
OCS Joint Concept. JROC Memorandum 159-13, approved the OCS Joint Concept, and JROCM 060-14 approved implementation thereof as part of the OCS Action Plan. This concept envisions that contracted support for military operations will be an interdependent capability of Joint Force 2020 (JF 2020). This concept addresses how JF 2020 can operationalize OCS to optimize contracted support capabilities of the total force partners to achieve operational effects across the range of military operations within acceptable and manageable risk levels. It builds upon ongoing efforts to institutionalize OCS in the present force and proposes a full spectrum doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, and personnel capability solution framework to deliver more responsive and accountable OCS. The OCS Joint Concept implementation tasks were incorporated into the OCS Action Plan by the FCIB in February 2014. The OCS Mission Integrator (OMI) is the key organizational solution element of the OCS JC. The OMI will provide combatant commanders, joint task forces and components unprecedented capability to integrate OCS across joint functions and into contracting efforts to optimize Total Force capabilities. The JS J4 has partnered with U.S Pacific Command (USPACOM) to conduct a three-year demonstration to assess the OMI’s performance under operational conditions. The demonstration started in June 2014 and successfully completed its inaugural year. Year I focused on forming and training the OMI team as an OCSIC, participating in OCSJX-15, and integrating into the USPACOM battle rhythm. The team fulfilled the objectives outlined in the Transition Agreement, CONOPS, and contract for the formative initial year and is reorganizing for the critical second year. All Year I deliverables are either complete or on track for completion in accordance with the Plan of Action and Milestones. Year II is envisioned as the critical year to demonstrate the effectiveness of the OMI as conceived in the OCS JC. Deliverables include shelf-ready products to share with the OCS community of interest and a determination on the viability of an enduring OMI-like capability within USPACOM beyond the three-year demonstration.
Prepared by: DASD (Program Support)
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